Refers to the forms have and be which are followed by past participle
Refers to an element (pronoun or other element) that is grammatically independent but must be phonologically adjacent to a host form: verb (auxiliary, modal, infinitive, imperative, gerund, finite verb) or noun (with possessive clitics).
Indicates the position of the clitic relative to the verb. The clitic can precede the first (or only) verb (proclisis), or follow the last (or only) verb (enclisis). With more than one verb, the clitic can also be positioned between the verbs: for example with three verbs we might find verb-clitic-verb-verb, verb-verb-clitic-verb, etc. See also Enclisis and Proclisis.
Refers to a change of stress pattern of a verb when certain pronominal clitics attach to that verb. See also Stress.
Indicates the position of the clitic at the end of a verbal form with one verb. When there are various verbal forms it only indicates the position of the clitic after the last verbal form. See also Clitic Position and Proclisis.
Refers to any form the pronoun might adopt depending on whether it is impersonal, locative, partitive, neuter, possessive, reflexive, l.
Refers to a long duration of a consonant anywhere in the utterance.
Refers to masculine or feminine gender of the pronoun.
Refers to a verbal form with no tense or person or number morpheme. Derived from the Latin form ND.
Refers to a specific verbal form used in direct commands involving a discourse second person (singular or plural) or a first person plural.
Impersonal (pronoun form)
Refers to the usage of se with no indication of specific person for the subject of the sentence.
Refers to a verbal form with no tense or person or number morpheme. Derived from the Latin forms A:RE, E:RE, ERE, I:RE.
Refers to the usage of a sentence as a question.
Locative (pronoun form)
Refers to a pronominal form that indicates location, and may derive from the Latin ibi.
l (pronoun form)
Refers to a clitic form which contains the morpheme /l/ (or a historically derived form such as /d/ or /ɖ/). It is often (although not necessarily, as in the case of Sardinian) identical to the form used in the determiner system.
Refers to a finite verbal form (followed by an infinitive) that allows the attachment of a pronominal clitics originating from a verbal form that follows.
Refers to whether the sentence contains a negative word no or any Negative Quantifier.
Neuter (pronoun form)
Refers to a pronominal form that indicates amount or any nonspecific notion in gender or number. Follows the Latin form hoc.
Refers to singular, plural of the pronoun.
Refers to singular, plural of the verbal form.
Refers to a verbal from with no tense morpheme usually preceded by an auxiliary. It allows the same number and gender specification of the nominal and adjectival system.
Partitive (pronoun form)
Refers to a pronominal form that indicates part of an amount or quantity. May derive from the Latin form inde.
Refers to the person encoded in the pronoun. We use the term person to refer to the grammatical person, not the discourse person. Thus a grammatical 3rd person pronoun might be used to refer to addressee.
Refers to the person encoded in the verbal form. We use the term person to refer to the grammatical person, not necessarily the discourse person. Thus a grammatical 3rd person imperative might be used to refer to addressee.
Possessive (pronoun form)
Refers to pronouns that indicate possession and contain similar morphemes to the object clitic counterpart: m, t, s, l.
Refers to any prepositional element found between two verbal elements. Derived from the Latin prepositions DE and AD.
Indicates the position of the clitic at the beginning of the verb with one verbal form. When there are various verbal forms it only indicates the position of the clitic before the first verbal form. See also Clitic Position and Enclisis.
Reflexive (pronoun form)
Refers to an anaphoric pronominal form. It does not encode number or gender. May be derived from the Latin form se.
Refers to the form the pronoun might adopt depending on whether its function is Direct or Indirect Object.
Refers to the syllable of the verb or verb + enclitic unit that receives more prominence relative to other syllables in the same prosodic unit. Stress can be on the final, penultimate, antepenultimate or preantepenultimate syllable. See also Displaced Stress.
Refers to a verbal form that encodes temporal specification in its morphological ending (present, past or future).
Refers to an element whose grammatical function is unclear.
Verb 1, Verb 2, Verb 3, Verb 4
Refers to the relative position of the verb in a sequence of adjacent verbal elements (includes infinitives, finite forms, auxiliaries, participles and gerunds). Verb 1 is the first (or only) verb of the sequence, verb 2 is the second verb, etc